More 2nd Cousins Turn Up – via Carl Weil & Marie Koegle and Their Daughter Clara in Toledo, Ohio

As of January 24, 2018 we traced the connection with two more 2nd Cousins, a brother and sister, who had been adjacent cousins on GEDmatch for more than a year.  They, and their two brothers, are almost certain descendants of our shared Great Grandfather Carl Weil and another German immigrant, the 24 year old Marie Katie Koegle in Toledo, Ohio who had a daughter Clara, born in 1887.

The 2nd Cousin descendants had the surname Mattlin and and have the name Merten.  We have had  a great exchange of photos of our ancestors.

Toledo was where Carl and elder brother Jacob Weil, when first in America, lived with their aunt Louise N. Weil and her husband Nathan L. Ries, with whom they eventually built businesses.

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Evolution of DNA analysis

Scientific progress will re-evaluate DNA categorization from time to time.  References in this blog are those used by the authors of the papers cited.

In 2010 23andMe categorized our Y-chromosome as Y-E1b1b1c1a* which remains our primary reference.

Our Y, over the past 20 years plus, has been included in and referred to as: M34, M84, E-M96, Y-E136, Y-E123, L29, E-L117.

About 2015 ftDNA categorized our Y-chromosome as Y-E-L117.

Several years later, 23andMe re-termed our Y chromosome categorization to E-L29, for their purposes.

Little is known about the distribution of the group of people with this haplogroup  in terms of geographical migration out of East Africa through North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.

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Weil an Anagram for Levi? Weil … Spanish and Moroccan Sephardi?

New information has been discovered that indicates that Weil written in Hebrew is an anagram for Levi written in Hebrew.  This makes the Weils Levites.  This is further reinforced by a 23andMe report that states that among my DNA cousin matches the most numerous and weighted DNA match and ancestral name is Cohen.  The third largest is Levi.  The second largest is Rothschild.  It must be remembered that this calculation comes from the DNA samples that were voluntarily submitted, not from a scientific population study.

Also, new information has been discovered that places Weils in Spain and Morocco.

Weil/Weyl/Weill Anagram for Levi

What’s in a name? By Estee Rieder

“There are some that are even an anagram of an earlier family name; the name Weil in Hebrew (vov-yud-lamed) is an anagram of Levi (lamed-vav-yud).“

Several locations, including Wikipedia and a Moroccan Jewish name list, indicate that Weyl/Weil/Weill may have come as an anagram of the name Levi.  According to Jewish biblical history, the Cohens and the Levites were assigned specific tasks in the temple, and treated differently in other ways. That is consistent with the 900 page history that indicates that the Weils were a highly respected Rabbinical family.

Weil A Sephardi Name?

Weil is listed as a Sephardi name in the following documents:


Getting There: The Rationale

The analysis/search of the Sephardi connection started because one of my 2nd cousins Karen, also a descendant of Carl Henry Weil, was surprised when her DNA analysis showed 98% Ashkenazi. Her comment stirred my prior interest in a possible Weil Sephardi origin.  A comment in an excerpt from the 900 page family history suggested that the Weils were Sephardi although I gather there is no hard information on that point in that book.  The history also indicated that the author didn’t know where the name came from.  Apparently there are two rivers in Europe who’s names are spelled close to Weil. However, the family history also contains an unsubstantiated suggestion that the family originated in Valls, Tarragona, Spain not far south west from Barcelona.  It was a Jewish centre.  If true, that ups the probability almost to a certainty.

First, the naming conventions are different for the Ashkenazim than for the Sephardi.  The German web site Hohenems Genealogie (Jüdische Familiengeschichte in Vorarlberg und Tirol) which has extensive family tree information on the Weils.  Lo and behold, the Weils practiced the Sephardi convention where they named the first male and female children after a living family member, specifically grandparents.  Ashkenazim don’t, apparently. Furthermore, Sephardi have been using surnames from according to that convention going back to about the 12th C, when, of course, there were large numbers of Jews in Portugal, Spain and Morocco.  Ashkenazim didn’t really adopt surnames until the late 17th C to the mid-18th C when they were required to in Europe. The 900 page family history indicates that the Weil names goes way back in the Randegg family.

Also, both my 2nd Cousin Karen and I have significant Iberian and Mediterranean DNA, not in large amounts but sufficient to be unequivocal.   It appears in other DNA tests as well. I used a number of GEDmatch Admixture analysis apps with both my file and Karen’s which further confirmed a substantial Mediterranean connection.  I did not get it from my other three grandparents.

My Eastern European DNA can almost totally be attributed to my Polish great grandmother Juliana Lugiewicz who conceived my grandfather with Carl Weil on New Years Eve 1989.


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The Lost Have Been Found! Journey’s End! Perhaps. Maybe.

We are convinced that we have found Frank “McCallum’s” parents!  Hard to believe.  DNA testing has been the key resource.

A short summary:

  • Frank was born October  7, 1890 not October 27, 1891 as he believed.
  • He was born in Saginaw, Michigan not Detroit as he believed.  He did live in Detroit for a number of years.
  • Frank’s  mother was Juliana Lugiewicz who married Joseph Franckowiak in 1892 in Saginaw. Clara Lugiewicz, who Frank put on his WWI Military Attestation as his Next Of Kin, was his aunt, Julia’s brother Andrew’s wife.  From the beginning of this eight year search we had wondered if Clara was Frank’s mother.  His mother, Julia, died in 1911 of tuberculosis, which–we believe–is why he named his Aunt Clara as his NOK.  Juliana was born in 1867 in Germany/Poland, immigrating to Saginaw in 1884.
  • Frank’s father was Carl Henry Weil from Randegg, Konstanz, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.  It is a 50 minute drive from Zurich, Switzerland.  He and a handful of brothers immigrated to Saginaw/Toledo from 1884. They set up a number of fruit wholesale and grocery retail businesses. Eventually, in the early 1890s he moved to Chicago.  Then they moved into the cardboard and paper business running Cromwell Paper Co.
  • The Weil family of Randegg has a celebrated history including many highly respected Rabbis.  One family history goes back to 1135.
  • It has been quite a search, over 4 continents and four thousand years.  It has been very rewarding.
  • Frank had ten half siblings.  Three of Julia’s children died young. Meeting many living cousins has been quite wonderful.  This continues.

There is a great deal that we do not yet know about Frank’s background, including where he picked up the name McCallum.  We have some clues but no evidence yet.  It appears that he lived with his mother and step-father for a number of years, even up to 1900.

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Information Sought, Current Status, Next Steps

Please feel free to add information to the following by emailing it to:  ian (at)

August 2016

We now have DNA (two 2nd cousins) and other evidence that my grandfather’s father was Carl Henry Weil of Randegg, Germany, Saginaw, Toledo and Chicago. Ironically for us, having had no family information before 1902 we now have information back to 1135 AD about this respected Rabbinical family.

We are now 90% certain that we have also identified the mother due to DNA evidence and family tree information that previously eluded us. As things would have it, it is not the woman that we thought it was but her husband’s sister.

June 2016 Post About Information Gathered and Sought

Information Sought – PATERNAL Side

Having located a second cousin in the fall of 2015 we are now trying to locate the Most Recent Common Ancestor that we share, who will likely be our Great Grand or 2ndGreat Grand, born 1840-1875.

The Ancestral & Contemporary names of greatest interest in that search are Hirsch and Weil but include:

Note: The names with + signs beside them turned out to be the most important. 



Ancestral & Possible *MRCA Names

UPSTREAM from 2nd Cousin & Also Same Name Descendants DOWNSTREAM

Other Names


Of Descendants DOWNSTREAM From MRCA & Possible DNA Testees

Baruch Bartelstein
Cohn Bonsor
Friedman Colman
+Grostein Critchlow
Hellman Dusen
*Hirsch Eiseman
*Kaufman +Florsheim
*+Kuhn Lorie
Lautman Metzenberg
Mullen Milch
Neuberger Morris
Reichenberg Mullen
Rosenfeld ++Pfaeltzer
+Rosenthal Pomroy
Senturia Schmidt
Silberberg Schwartz
*+++Weil Smyth


We are looking for these names among DNA matches on:

  • 23andMe
  • ftDNA (uploaded 23andMe data + Y12 test
  • Ancestry
  • GEDmatch Kits M144207 (from 23andMe) & A349088 (from AncestryDNA) Note: Other family kits are also on GEDmatch; all emails are to
    (recently added two more DNA testing labs from which testees can upload their test files.  This will increase the number of cousin matches.)

These names could that of a testee or as a family name listed by the testee in their file.

Any such testee could help eliminate or identify current MRCA possibilities.

You will note that most of the names on the list are obviously Jewish.  My 2nd cousin is 100% Ashkenazim.  Frank must have been 50% Ashkenazim as his grandsons are approximately 12.5% each.  Ancestry has indicated that I’m 18%.  Also, Frank certainly had the Y-chromosome E1b1b1c1a as his grandsons and great grandsons through the male lines have that Y-chromosome.  It is the Y-chromosome that bags second largest group of Jewish males, after J1.  Therefore, it is very probable that his father was Jewish and it was his mother who was not Jewish and was possibly Catholic.

Information Sought – MATERNAL Side

DNA evidence may yet reveal Frank’s mother but we have nothing to use to separate our DNA into his mother’s and his father’s, except for the Y-chromosome E1b1b1c1a (E-L117) that he received from his father.

Also, I am looking working on making contact with descendants of Mary Clara Lugiewicz (born Lewandowski) and Andrew Lugiewicz both born in Poland/Germany in 1875, and married in 1896 after having immigrated in 1890 and 1891 respectively.  They lived in Saginaw, Michigan until her death in 1947.  They may have information relevant to our search because in about 1915 or 1916, Frank amended his Military Attestation Form to list her as his 2nd Next of Kin giving her address as 477 Winter St., Carrolton, Saginaw, Michigan. We have acquired all of his Canadian military records and that information is perpetuated in 3 other places in his documents.  Why did Frank do that?  Was she a caregiver in an orphanage?  Her descendants may have information relevant to that question.  She was Catholic and Frank identified himself as Catholic on his Military Attestation form so he may have been in a Catholic orphanage in Saginaw.

Current Working Fact Set Status

Name: “Frank” Francis Freeman “McCallum” – more or less valid from 1902.  We strongly believe that “McCallum” was not his birth name.

DOB: October 27, 1891 (First evidence is on 1914 Canadian Military Attestation but is unconfirmed)

Birth Place: Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan (From Military Attestation but is unconfirmed)

Male Y-chromosome:  Y-E1b1b1c1a (Y-M84) also known by ftDNA as Y-L117

Other possible birth places: Saginaw, Michigan; St. Louis; Chicago

Date of immigration into Canada: between late spring and early autumn of either 1901 0r 1902  He walked into Canada on his own at age 12.  (Anecdotal information “confirmed” by the Benolkin farm family that took him in.) There will be no immigration records for that entry into Canada, given the primitive infrastructure there at that time.

Death: 1955

Place of Death: Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (confirmed)



Next Steps

I now have the results of my Ancestry DNA test and I have uploaded to Ancestry a family tree plus a few others who are either DNA cousins or related to them and probable cousins.  This will produce additional matches.  I will then create a short list of possibilities in September 2016 and contact them individually to find out what additional information they have that might be of use.

I am continuing my attempts to locate Frank’s birth record, orphanage and adoption records in Michigan–if such exist.  Unfortunately, given that era such records were not collected, stored and made public by a single government or institution.

I am attempting to use DNA cousins’ information on ancestral names and European home towns to narrow down our MRCA’s  town of origin.  Some of my 2nd cousin’s ancestors have that information attached to them.

By various means, including DNA chromosome fragments matching, I am adding selected living 2nd and 3rd cousins to a short list and digging up information on them and their ancestors by direct contact and through documents.

Steps Taken

Immigration searches relevant to certain assumptions has not been helpful.  Searches have been conducted in Canada and Ellis Island, New York and certain emigration and passenger records in Germany and the UK.  Not all of the names listed above have been searched, as there is not enough justification or additional information for some of them.


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Major Progress – 2nd Cousin Found! – UPDATE February 18, 2016

Thanks to an understanding woman sympathetic to our search, we are now closer to learning Frank’s and our true surname and a major part of our history prior to 1900.  This woman is a major breakthrough in our search. After comparing our respective DNA, 23andMe concludes that she is 2nd Cousin to Bryce, Brian, Marcus and me, as well as a 2nd Cousin once removed to my sons David and Jon.

No doubt, finding new second cousins has come as a huge surprise to her and her family.  I’ve not yet asked her permission to reveal her name but will do so once I complete this phase of research with some reasonable findings.  Some new friends at the Ontario Genealogical society are being of tremendous help in this more complex phase of the search.

Based on information that she provided, Frank’s surname is likely one of the following, with my calculated probability indicated:

  • Male lines Hirsch or Weil – 50%
  • Female lines Hellman or Kuhn – 25% (also Rosenthal, Kaufman, Lang)
  • Another,  including McCallum or some variant of it – 25%

We are investigating the following.


  • St. Louis, Missouri
  • Chicago, Illinois
  • Havelock, Iowa
  • Saginaw, Michigan also nearby Millington
  • Detroit, Michigan

Time period: 1870 +/- 20 years

Generation: 2nd Cousin’s GreatGrandParents (2G), and, if necessary, her 3GParents

DNA factor

The critical 2nd cousin forecast by 23andMe is based on the following industry ratios.

DNA Shared Between 2nd Cousin and Ian McCallum
Normative Genetics Actual Shared
 Second Cousins Share  She and I Share
DNA % av 3.13% 3.4%
cMs 101-378 253
Segments 10–18 12

Brother Brian and cousins Bryce and Marcus share similar, even larger amounts of DNA with our common 2nd cousin.

Ashkenazim factor

  • 2nd Cousin – 95-98% Ashkenazim
  • Ian – 12.5%

This suggests that Frank was half Ashkenazim, therefore one of his parents was not “genetically” Ashkenazim otherwise my Ashkenazim content would be double to ~25%.

Male Y-chromosome factor

The male Y-chromosome has been of little help yet in this search since women don’t carry it. But, since Frank’s Y-chromosome E-M84 (E1b1b1c1a) also known as E-L117 was passed on to me via my father and since it is the second largest Y-chromosome among Jewish males, after J1, that fact combined with our Ashkenazim DNA percentages suggests strongly that (my estimate 90%+) that Francis’/Frank’s father was an Ashkenazim Jew.

Working Hypothesis

Therefore, I posit–for the moment–that we share a GreatGrandFather as the Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA).

Other DNA Cousins and Triangulation

Preliminary search has been started along two lines using other DNA cousins to triangulate with our 2nd Cousin’s 2G and 3G Parents.

Investigative line number one has been to find cousins we match in common on 23andMe where DNA lab testing took place.  I also found those matching cousins who also cited in their ancestral surnames one of our 2nd Cousin’s four 2G Parents’ surnames.    That small group now requires further cross triangulation and ranking with each other.

Investigative line number two has been to find the specific DNA fragments on specific chromosomes that the six of us share with our 2nd Cousin.  They are on chromosomes 1, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11 and 16.  The next step, to be taken only if necessary, is to use services like GEDmatch and DNAgedcom to find cousin matches to me on those fragments.  Subsequently, it would be necessary to find means of verifying which of those also match our 2nd cousin.  This step is in an area of DNA analysis about which I know too little.

The Orphan Factor

Our 2nd cousin knows of no missing relatives.  Had there been such, this search could have likely concluded much sooner.

One of my new genealogy friends discovered a 1900 Iowa Census showing an 11 year old Frank McColum as a boarder (read labourer) on the Stover farm in Pocahontas, Sherman Township (Havelock), Iowa. His birth date varies on records from 1889 to 1891.

It was only one or two years later that our Frank walked into Saskatchewan, connecting with the Benolkin family somewhere along the way, with whom he stayed at their new farm at Dundurn, Saskatchewan before getting old enough to get his own land at Hanley, Saskatchewan.  He stayed friends with the Benolkins throughout his life.  I have spoken to one of the family who remembers him.

Of note is the fact that the route from this farm in Iowa to Dundurn is along roads that are virtually a one thousand mile straight line through the Beardsley, Minnesota community from which the Benolkins left, less than 500 miles to the north north west.

Also, family lore has it that several times Frank returned to the United States to look for a brother.  He also said that the orphanage records had been burned in a fire.  In 1920 orphanage and other municipal records were burned in a  warehouse in Havelock, Iowa the community nearest to the Iowa farm where Frank McColum laboured.  Also, in 1894 a major fire in central Saginaw burned many buildings including an orphanage.

The birth and orphan records of that time in Missouri, and presumably, Iowa were not comprehensive in any case.

Other - Mary Clara Lugiewicz  (born Lewandowski)

We have and will also pursue further leads concerning his time as an orphan, following up on cryptic information on this Military Attestation form completed when signing up for WWI. Some of this relates specifically to a reference to a female next of kin, Clara “Tygrnwitz”.   This information was scrawled in the margin and consequently our interpretation was wrong.  The name is Mary Clara Lugiewicz  (born Lewandowski) at 277 Winter St., Saginaw Michigan.  I have procured his full military documentation where the information was typed several times. That street exists, Winter St., but the address does not now exist but may have existed in that earlier, less organised time.

Frank’s relationship to Clara is unknown.  Clara was 15 years older than Frank.  The Clara Lugiewicz we found was born in Poland/Germany in 1875 as was her husband Andrew Lugiewicz.  They immigrated in 1890 and 1891 respectively and married in Saginaw in 1896. They had 8 children together.   They seemed to have lived on Winter St. for their lives.  He had a store.

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Co-Location of A Large Cluster of Other Living E-M84s & Abraham

As you will recall, geneticist’s working estimate is that the last major mutation of our male chromosome E-M84 took place about 1515 BCE in a region along the current Syrian/Turkish border running east from the Mediterranean.

A previous posting reported that Russian geneticists have determined that there is a 50% chance that we share that Y-chromosome with Abraham.

I’ve just learned that a cluster of more than 1,000 living males carrying our Y-haplotype (E-M84) is centred in the Turkish city of Gaziantep which is 90 crow fly miles west of Harran.  Abraham’s family came from that area, ancestors and his brother were named Haran and therefore it is believed that Harran was named after one of those ancestors.  Also, it is where Abraham, his wife, his father and his nephew traveled  after leaving Lower Mesopotamia. Abraham and his wife Sarai probably went via Gaziantep a little further west and then south to Canaan.  Gaziantep is only 70 miles from the Mediterranean.

Gaziantep has a population of 1.4 million and 4 universities.  It is among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, probably due to being situated on trade routes.

Both Harran and Gaziantep are close to the horrible conflict in Syria.  Gazaiantep is less than 20 miles from the border and 60 miles from Aleppo.

Other Middle Eastern 1000+ clusters of E-M84 include:

  • Beirut, Lebanon
  • South Israel
  • Cyprus
  • Cairo
  • Medina

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First Cousin Data

Now two additional grandchildren of the elusive Frank have taken the 23andMe DNA test.  Marcus McCallum (son of Neil) and Bryce Holmgren (son of Effie) have stepped up to the tube, spit and mailed it off to the lab.  Now, with Brian, we have 4 grand children from 3 different children plus 2 great grandchildren, David and Jon, from the same father, me.

Bryce and Marcus have given me access to their data to help isolate selected chromosome fragments that are consistent with us all, or most of us, so that we can use these to more clearly identify probable cousins.

The chromosome comparisons show some interesting correlations within the family but these need further review to determine what might by useful.  I have not yet had time to triangulate with other cousin matches.

Stay tuned.

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Romania 8, Latvia 9, Ukraine 4

Are we closer to knowing paternal ancestry beyond Grandfather Frank?  Well, yes and no.

Possible late 1800s “source” countries, ranked in order of probability, starting with the most probable country of origin, and providing a relative scale number for each, we have:

Latvia 9
Romania 8
Ukraine 4

At 2 each:

At 1 each:
Czech Republic
Russian Federation

I won’t go into the caveats for the above except to note that these scale numbers are based on the percentage of my matches relative to the number of tested individuals who identify with each of those regions.

There is a strong Ashkenazi linkage to many of these matches. except for the Fante, South-West Ghana link.  The Ashkenazi link would suggest that the individuals we seek migrated either in groups or individually from one Ashkenazi community to another.

Confused?  Let me parse, as best I can.  One of the reasons we have not yet produced the answer we seek is that my knowledge, skill and experience is not yet up to the task of working with so much unorganized data.  What is relevant, what is related etc.

From the table above the most that I can take, I believe, is that it narrows the number of potential source countries.  This enables us to focus, for the time being, on leads that relate to those countries.

You will recall that early on in this search I came across 4th cousin Daniela (Dana)  Mahailovici, living in Haifa, Israel but with parental  origins in Romania.  She has enabled me to have access to a combination of family trees that seem to amount to several 10s of thousands.

She suggested several lines of probability, specifically the Landesman family which led me to spin-off Pick/Pik who had many family named versions of Frank including Franz, Frances, Francis etc.  Pick is still the most probable surname.

This means that the table sort of confirms Daniela’s original suggestion. Questions arise because whereas Romania and the Ukraine are close to one another, their capitals about 1,000 km apart, Latvia’s capital is 2,000 km north and north of both Poland and Lithuania.  That is geography only. Migration forces are more than geography. Certainly the migration history of the region should clarify.

The table was prepared by FamilyTreeDNA from all the 12 Marker Genetic Distance -1 for me.  The 64 people who match me give those countries as related to their families.

The Ghana reference is the most curious.  I mean, we look African, don’t we.  It’s an anomaly.  Our Y-Haplogroup, E, is the most common in Africa by far.  However, that doesn’t explain a -1 match since our Y-Haplotype’s last mutation was about 1515 BCE in the region of the current Syria/Turkey border. My hypothesis is that the tested Fante individual, of the Akan ethnic group, has an ancestor who was either one of the Portuguese traders who established themselves on the African coast around 15 century or was one of the Phoenician traders who established themselves along the coast north and south of Gibraltar around 1,000 BCE, give or take hundreds of years.  The Portuguese connection would also relate to Phoenicians at their trading posts set along the Atlantic coast of Spain (Cadiz) and Portugal BCE.

By the way, my only Exact Match reference cites Germany.  I need to find out what that means and how to make use of that information.

One of my frustrations with ftDNA is that I can’t yet identify the 64 individuals by their names and email addresses, unlike the rest of the site.  There must be a way. I’ve downloaded the complete list and search by the term “Romania” which has turned up a manageable list but it is much longer than the cited -1 list. For them I do have email addresses and names and in some cases family trees. More work to do.

I may need to upgrade my ftDNA marker test.  But for the time being, I can find no explanation of why that would be of any use.

Stay tuned.


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500 Word Summary of Our Search Now Posted on CBC, Canada Reads, Bloodlines Web Site

Our search for our paternal ancestry I’ve condensed to a 500 word interesting read, I hope, and posted on the CBC web site Bloodlines as another means of generating possible leads to missing living relatives who may have the key to our identity. You can find it at DESC

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